A national education system is often defined from the point of view of the formal education system. This includes formal education in early childhood education, primary education, secondary education, higher education, and university education. Subsets of informal and non-formal education are often considered part of formal education and, if they are not completely ignored, receive little attention. However, it is important that the national education system fully integrates all subsets of the education system, namely formal, informal and non-formal education.
Our perceptions of child development and learning styles change as new studies and findings present evidence to confirm or modify one theory or another. The practices with respect to education in the United States have changed from one generation to another. Evolution is natural and continues as research and empirical studies continue.
To what extent does national education policy make a difference in the classroom and how much does national policy drive educational policy in the United States, where schools, curricula, and teaching have been controlled at the local and state levels? since the dawn of public schools?
The political philosophy that controls the government of a country often has its inevitable impact on education. The political factor dictates the type of administration that the educational system will have. Behind the characteristics of the education system and how it works. For example, the fundamental ideas of socialism as political philosophy referred to the exploitation of labor by capital and this gave rise to the mass of the class. As a political philosophy, socialism recognizes property as the basis of the economic structure of the state that results in the concentration of civil and legal power in the hands of the propertied class. Socialism advocates the nationalization of the means of production; where the owners of the means of production do not work and the workers who produce do not own anything. A change of such social order can only be achieved with educational reform. This would be through a state mechanism with full control of education and the curriculum and this means that citizens must be trained by the state, for the state, and in state institutions. In such cases, the details of the curriculum are often decided by state authorities and involve the functional training of citizens. The curriculum may also include scientific training for social use purposes.
Good examples of countries that have introduced a socialist education system are Mexico, Bulgaria, and Cuba. The common characteristics of its educational system include the monopoly of state control over education, secularism, physical and military training, political indoctrination inside and outside the school and also a greater emphasis on science subjects. In these states, the freedom of the people and the idea of tolerance are not accepted. Unlike these countries, France has a centralized education system based on its political philosophy. In France, everything related to education is controlled from the center (metropolis) which is the central government. In the case of EE. In the United States and Japan, their education systems are highly decentralized and often based on the democratic influence and capitalist political philosophy of these countries.
There is also a close relationship between the national character and the national education system. For example, the national character of the United States is democratic, so that its educational system is democratic in most aspects. Nationalism also as a political ideology influences the educational system of a country. Nationalism could be defined as a psychological feeling within a group that believes to have a common vision and traditions based on the myth of the common ancestor. These common ancestors include race, language, religion, and territory and often strengthen the awareness of nationality. The racial aspect that is often within the political ideology of a country can play an important role in determining the characteristics of the educational system. The race refers to a tribe, a nation or a group of nations. The modern population includes people of different racial origins. The British colonial policy was based on the principle of decentralization and the construction of a community of nations, each of which should be free to develop its own national culture and character. Therefore, there is a close relationship between the national character and the national education system and the first has been universally accepted as an important base of the national education system. Therefore, the policy system of a country is closely related to its educational program.